Wolves aren't yet a problem here, but they are sighted on rare occasions. However, about once, or twice a year, a mountain lion, which we usually never see ourselves, comes by and causes the cattle to become extremely agitated to the point of hysteria. So far, these occurrences have not affected our herd's docility or the handling ability of them.
Coyotes, however, are another thing. Our herd absolutely despises coyotes and will chase them as well as dogs. Our dog will not go into the herd by herself, and never at all during calving season. Coyotes are a reason that we leave the horns on many of our cows. Yesterday evening, Dad saw a cow standing by herself and looking into the distance towards a corner of the pasture. We thought that she may have a calf stashed out there and went to look. When we drove out, there wasn't a calf, but a coyote flushed out and ran over the hill.
I think that I can answer part of the researchers query about long term effects and behaviors of cattle exposed to predators. The cows pay attention, and they never forget it. The calves are quick to learn these same behaviors themselves, and over the period of decades, I think that these behaviors become pretty well permanently ingrained. Fortunately for us these behaviors have not had to go to the extremes of those of the cattle that have been exposed to the presence of wolves.
In closing, I would like to write about something I saw a couple of years ago, and had not seen before or since. In the autumn, I was out in the fields by a pasture and could see the cattle in it spread out over one half a mile. There are low hills in this pasture with a dry creek bed running through them. There happened to be a coyote walking casually along the creek bed not far from the farmstead which a cow had noticed as well. She stayed on top of the hills and started to follow the coyote, who in turn, started to trot in a feigned casual fashion. The cow also broke into a trot as well an pushed to coyote about 300 yards before tiring of the chase, allowing the coyote to slow to a walk again. Unfortunately for the coyote, a second cow noticed, and took up the chase for another few hundred yards before tiring herself, and a THIRD cow took her place. In the end, the coyote was pushed the length of pasture and out of it into the next, with only bovine participant breaking above a trot.
I found this highly entertaining and wish that I had had a camera. With the right inducement, cows will actually run relay races!